Orlické hory are an integral part of a highland
barrier creating natural border of the Czech fold. Belonging to
Sudetic system, protrude by protracted ridge of more than 50 km/30
miles length on the north-east edge of the Czech state reaching
1000m/600 miles height. The highest point Velká
Deštná runs to 1115 m.
Geomorphologicaly it is divided into
three parts :
highland is the highest and largest northwest part, with a ridge
shaped by Vrchmezí
(1084 m), Šerlich
(1025 m), Malá Deštná (1090 m), Velká
Deštná (1115 m), Jelenka (1097 m), Koruna ( Orel 1099 m), Homole
(1001 m), Tetřevec (1043 m), Kunštátská
kaple (1035 m) and Anenský
vrch (995 m). Its northeast steep slope is formed by a tectonic
shift. Southwest slopes project by gentle branches Zakletý (991
Mladkovská highland is the smallest
and lowest part, except Adam (765 m) and Studený (720 m) does not
exceed 700 m. Lowered ridge is transect by Divoká and Tichá Orlice.
Bukovohorská highland is the last cape to
the east, divided by Červenovodské saddle (815 m ) onto northern
Suchý vrch (995 m) and southern
Buková hora (958 m) part.
Orlické Mountains are composed by moldanubic, ie.
series of rocks generated during sedimentation in precambric sea
and wrinkled later into mountain chains and composed of slates,
agglomerates, sandstones. All the highest parts have been later
took down by water erosion, only the deeply embedded parts which
due to high temperatures underwent principal changes remained. These
metamorphosed rocks (called crystallic slates - gneiss, mica schist,
limestone and quartzite) together with deep-mined igneous rocks
(granite) create the Orlické MountainsShortly before mesozoic, in
the perm period, in water basins red stones sedimented (mostly claystones
and fine-grained arkose sandstones) creating a formation known as
the saxon . That is mostly extended on foothills in the Náchod environs.
During tertiary, earthen floes lifted up along shifts
and so the main ridge was created - by an crank of a plain followed
by an elevation to the northeast.
Orlické Mountains create Labe-Odra water divide,
dewatered by Divoká and Tichá (Silent)
Orlice (Rash and Silent Eagle River),
both supplied by numerous creeks and brooks running off slopes,
mainly western ones.
Orlice (Rash Eagle River) springs in moorlands Topielisko
and Czarne Bagno in Poland and up to Zemská
Brána (Land Gate) it shapes the country border. Through a wild
rocky valley than enters to the country, supplying the Pastviny
dam built here during 1932-1938.
Tichá Orlice (Silent Eagle River) rises in a fold of Jeřáb
(Rowan) hang (1000m) near Králíky. Up to Mladkov it flows west,
than turns south.
Almost all mountain ridges trend approximately northeast-southeast
and influence considerably climatic progression. Winds of the western
direction prevail, in the winter time tough wind from Klodsko called
Polák (Polish guy) winds.
The highest precipitations are falling down at the
ridge top, reaching 1200 mm per year. The coldest area is Velká
Deštná (Rainy Hill) with the average temperature 4,2°C/year.